seventeenth century house reconstruction

Historical Archaeology
of the Americas

Anth 106 / Afro 106
Course Syllabus, Fall 2023

Prof. Christopher Fennell

dividing bar

Course Description and Objectives

This course explores recent theoretical, methodological, and thematic developments in historical archaeology in North America and the Caribbean. The course subjects concern the time period of 1400 AD through 1900 AD. We will examine how historical archaeologists use artifactual, documentary, and oral history evidence in interpreting the past, and how historical archaeology can contribute to our understanding of the ways by which material culture can be used to study race, class, gender, and ethnic identities.

We consider questions such as: How can we analyze the material remains of past culture groups to account for the varied ways in which human societies organized themselves? What cultural, social, political, and ecological processes contributed to continuity or change in past social forms and material culture? How do we recognize and study the past dynamics of ethnicity, class, gender, and racialization in archaeological remains? This course will similarly explore the role that historical archaeology can play in making visible those people poorly represented in the documentary record of the past, such as enslaved African Americans and Native Americans, and it will help us to appreciate their significant roles in shaping the history of the New World.

For example, the role of African Americans in building our nation's history is a central part of historical archaeology studies of this time period and region. This course will engage students in examining the ways in which African Americans dealt with and persevered against past racializing ideologies, and the lessons to be learned from such studies of past racism, including possible ways of combating racism in the present and future. Learn more about the course structure and opportunities in the general syllabus guidelines.

Rendering of a Kongo Chieftain's grave, from E. J. Glave, Century Magazine, Vol. 41, p. 827 (1891), in J. M. Vlach, By The Work of Their Hands: Studies in Afro-American Folklife, p. 44, 1991

Locations and Instructor Background

Class will meet Tuesday and Thursdays, 2:00pm to 3:20pm in 1306 Everitt Laboratory. Instructor: Chris Fennell, office in 296 Davenport Hall, email Office hours Tues-Thurs, 1:00pm to 2:00pm, but please email me to arrange a time. I specialize in historical archaeology as an Professor of Anthropology and Law. My empirical research addresses the dynamics of social group affiliations among Africans, Europeans, and various social groups within the Americas in the 18th-20th centuries. These research initiatives include interpretative frameworks focusing on diaspora studies, regional systems and commodity chains, social group identities, ethnic group dynamics and racialization, stylistic and symbolic elements of material culture, consumption patterns, and analysis of craft and industrial enterprises. I am an affiliate faculty member of the Department of Landscape Architecture, the Center for African Studies and the Department of African American Studies, offering courses addressing African diaspora subjects and issues of racialization. I am also a member of the College of Law faculty and offer interdisciplinary seminars for graduate and law students.

Yifan Wang is a graduate student in archaeology who is assisting with grading in the course. Her email is and her office hours are 11:00am to 1:00pm, Thursdays, via Zoom, or by appointment. The Zoom link for her office hours is provided in the "Announcements" section of the Canvas web page for the course.


Internet resources on historical archaeology, which are suggested only and not required reading for this course, are available at:

Internet resources on African and African-American archaeology, cultures, and history, which are suggested only and not required reading for this course, are available at:

Resources on the archaeology of craft and industry, which are suggested only and not required reading for this course, are available at:

A non-exhaustive bibliography of other studies in historical archaeology is provided below, following the course schedule, as suggested readings only.

examples of Yoruba, Haiti, African-American, and Anglo-American house plans

Required Readings

  • In Small Things Forgotten: An Archaeology of Early American Life, by James Deetz (Anchor Books, 1996).

  • Uncommon Ground: Archaeology and Early African America, 1650-1800, by Leland Ferguson (Smithsonian Institution Press, 2004).

  • Additional articles and book excerpts listed in particular lesson plans below will be available through electronic reserve in the course web site available through the University's Canvas program.

    Suggested Readings: Historical Archaeology, by Charles E. Orser, Jr. (Routledge, 3d ed., 2018). This textbook is suggested reading only, and is not required.

    Grading Policy

    Your course grade will be determined by the grades you earn on the following: midterm exam (30% of course grade); Exhibit Analysis Paper (25%); and final exam (45%). Your regular attendance and active participation are of central importance for this course to provide you with a satisfying educational experience. Good attendance, class preparation, and note-taking will be very important for your ability to perform well, particularly on exams. The exams will follow a format of multiple choice questions and/or short-answer questions. The analysis paper will be due in class on Dec. 8, and will involve your visiting a museum, archaeology site, or heritage site and analyzing a relevant exhibit in the context of the subjects we are examining in this course. This course will fulfill a general education requirement for: Cultural Studies, Non-Western - U.S. Minority Culture(s); and Humanities & the Arts - Historical and Philosophical Perspectives.

    When taking exams and completing written assignments, you will be responsible for knowing the concepts and terms discussed in the assigned readings, in the films shown in class, and in the topics covered in lectures, handouts, and web page or power point summaries. When preparing assignments, be careful that you do not plagiarize the works of another; that is, do not present the work or words of another author in a verbatim manner as your own. Consult the University's regulations for more information on the hazards of plagiarism, at Assignments handed in late will lose 10% of the possible credit after the class in which they are due, and 10% more for each subsequent day late. No make-ups are provided for missed exams or assignments in the absence of documented and legitimate medical or family emergencies.

    Class Schedule

    Questions and Methods of Historical Archaeology

    Week 1.  Aug. 22 and 24.    Introduction to Historical Archaeology
      Introductory comments and overview of structure of course.
      Readings: Deetz, chap. 1; Orser, chap. 1.
      Film: Time Team America: New Philadelphia (PBS 2009). This film provides an overview of the history of this 19th-century community in western Illinois and a multi-year archaeological project to uncover the remains of its homes and businesses. This archaeology project led to the creation of the New Philadelphia National Historic Site as America's 424th National Park in 2022.
    Week 2.  Aug. 29 and 31.    Defining Historical Archaeology
      Required reading: Deetz, chap. 2.
    Week 3.  Sept. 5 and 7.    Material Culture Created and Forgotten
      Required reading: Deetz, chaps. 3-5.
      Film: Secret Weapon of the Confederacy (Nat'l Geographic, 2013), on the history and archaeology of the Civil War submarine, the H. L. Hunley. This film coveys an impressive set of investigative methods used to recover this sunken vessel and solve the mysteries of its final voyage.
    Week 4.  Sept. 12 and 14.     Interpreting the Forgotten: Studying Material Culture
      Required reading: Deetz, chap. 6.
    Doing Historical Archaeology

    Week 5.  Sept. 19 and 22.    Surveying and Locating Historical Archaeology Sites Week 6.  Sept. 26 and 28.    Written and Wrought: Using Documentary Records, Oral Histories, and Folklore Week 7.  Oct. 3 and 5.    Foodways and Provisioning
      Required reading: excerpts from Doing Historical Archaeology: Exercises Using Documentary, Oral, and Material Evidence, by Russell Barber (Prentice Hall, 1994) (on electronic reserve); "Provisioning Tidewater Towns," by Colonial Williamsburg Foundation (on electronic reserve).
    Week 8.  Oct. 10 and 12.    Recovering, Classifying, and Analyzing Artifacts Week 9.  Oct. 17 and 19.    Stylistic Analyses and Examples from Mortuary Sites
      Required reading: "Death's Head, Cherub, Urn and Willow," by James Deetz and Edwin S. Dethlefsen, with expanded illustrations (review all illustrations associated with the image map labelled as Figure 3 in this article), available online at:
      Suggested reading: "Cemeteries: Living with the Dead," by Randall McGuire, in Invisible America: Unearthing Our Hidden History, edited by Mark P. Leone and Neil A. Silberman, pp. 244-45. New York: Henry Holt, 1995 (on electronic reserve).
      Film: The African Burial Ground: An American Discovery (Gen. Serv. Adm. 1994). This film provides an account of the grass-roots community movement that directed the excavation and analysis of part of an African Burial Ground located beneath the streets of central Manhattan.
    1998 aerial view of New Philadelphia site with town lot overlay
    Blue Ridge Gap at Harpers Ferry

    Studying Social Dynamics and Change

    Week 10.  Oct. 24 and 26.    Explanation in Historical Archaeology // Analysis of Race and Racialization
      Required reading: Deetz, chaps. 7-8.
      Film: Who Owns the Past? (Riffe Productions, 2002). This film provides an account of "the powerful history of the American Indian struggle for control of their ancestral remains."
    Week 11.  Oct. 31 and Nov. 2.    African Diasporas in the Americas
      Required reading: Deetz, chaps. 8-9.
    Week 12.  Nov. 7 and 9.    Landscape, Architecture and Households in Early African America
      Required readings: Ferguson, prologue, introduction, chaps. 1-2.
    Week 13.  Nov. 14 and 16.    Subsistence and Spirituality in Early African America
      Required reading: Ferguson, chaps. 3-4, epilogue.
    Nov. 18-26.    Thanksgiving Break! Classes do not meet.

    Week 14.  Nov. 28 and 30.    Analyzing Gender, Class, and Ethnicity
      Required readings: Elizabeth M. Scott, Through the Lens of Gender: Archaeology, Inequality, and Those of Little Note, in Those of Little Note: Gender, Race and Class in Historical Archaeology, Elizabeth M. Scott, ed., pp. 3-26 (U. Arizona Press, 1994) (on electronic reserve); LouAnn Wurst, A Class All Its Own: Explorations of Class Formation and Conflict, in Historical Archaeology, edited by Martin Hall and Stephen Silliman, pp. 190-206 (Blackwell, 2006) (on electronic reserve); Roberta Greenwood, The Chinese in the Cities of the West, in Unlocking the Past: Celebrating Historical Archaeology in North America, edited by Lu Ann De Cunzo and John Jameson, Jr., pp. 45-49 (Univ. Press of Florida, 2005) (on electronic reserve).

      Review for final exam.
    Week 15.  Dec. 5.    Final examination on Canvas, Dec. 5.
      Exhibit Analysis Paper due.
    New Philadelphia excavators

    Suggested Readings

    The following is a sampling and nonexhaustive list of additional suggested readings that address a variety of topics and studies within the subject of historical archaeology.

    Adams, William H. 1976. Trade Networks and Interaction Spheres -- A View from Silcott. Historical Archaeology 10: 99-112.

    Adams, William H. 1977. Silcott, Washington: Ethnoarchaeology of a Rural American Community, Reports of Investigation 54, Washington State University.

    Agbe-Davies, Anna S. 1998. Dealing with ‘Race’ in African American Archaeology. Anthropology News 39(5): 14.

    Agbe-Davies, Anna S. 2002. Black Scholars, Black Pasts. SAA Archaeological Record 2(4): 24–28.

    Agbe-Davies, Anna S. 2017. Where Tradition and Pragmatism Meet: African Diaspora Archaeology at the Crossroads. Historical Archaeology 51(1): 9–27.

    Agbe-Davies, Anna S., and Claire Fuller Martin. 2013. ‘Demanding a Share of Public Regard’: African American Education at New Philadelphia, Illinois. Transforming Anthropology 21(2): 103–121.

    Agorsah, Kofi, editor. 1994. Maroon Heritage, University of the West Indies Press.

    Ahlman, Todd M., and Gerald F. Schroedl, editors. 2019. Historical Archaeologies of the Caribbean: Contextualizing Sites through Colonialism, Capitalism, and Globalism, University Alabama Press.

    Akin, Marjorie H. 2014. Numismatic Archaeology of North America: A Field Guide, Left Coast Press.

    Andren, Anders (translated by Alan Crozier). 1998. Between Artifacts and Texts: Historical Archaeology in Global Perspective, Plenum Press.

    Armstrong, Douglas A. 1990. The Old Village and the Great House: An Archaeological and Historical Examination of Drax Hall Plantation, St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica, University of Illinois Press.

    Armstrong, Douglas A. 2003. Creole Transformation from Slavery to Freedom: Historical Archaeology of the East End Community, St. John, Virgin Island, University Press of Florida.

    Archer, Steven, and Kevin Bartoy, editors. 2007. Between Dirt and Discussion: Methods, Methodology and Interpretation in Historical Archaeology, Springer Press.

    Ascher, Robert. 1961. Analogy in Archaeological Interpretation. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 17: 317-25.

    Atalay, Sonya. 2012. Community-Based Archaeology: Research with, by, and for Indigenous and Local Communities, University of California Press, Berkeley.

    Augé, C. Riley. 2020. The Archaeology of Magic: Gender and Domestic Protection in Seventeenth-Century New England, University Press of Florida.

    Backhouse, Paul N., Brent R. Weisman, and Mary Beth Rosebrough, editors. 2017. We Come for Good: Archaeology and Tribal Historic Preservation at the Seminole Tribe of Florida, University Press of Florida.

    Baker, Vernon G. 1978. Historical Archaeology of Black Lucy's Garden, Andover, Massachusetts: Ceramics from the Site of a Nineteenth Century Afro-American, Philips Academy.

    Balanzátegui, D. 2018. Collaborative Archaeology to Revitalize an Afro-Ecuadorian Cemetery. Journal of African Diaspora Archaeology and Heritage 7(1): 42–69.

    Barile, Kerri. 2004. Hegemony within the Household: The Perspective from a South Carolina Plantation. In Household Chores and Household Choices: Theorizing the Domestic Sphere in Historical Archaeology, edited by Kerri Barile and Jamie Brandon, University of Alabama Press.

    Barker, David. 2001. "The Usual Classes of Useful Articles": Staffordshire Ceramics Reconsidered. Ceramics in America 1: 73-93.

    Barnes, Jodi, editor. 2011. The Materiality of Freedom: Archaeologies of Post-Emancipation Life, University of South Carolina Press, Columbia.

    Barton, Christopher P. 2022. The Archaeology of Race and Class At Timbuctoo: A Black Community in New Jersey, University Press of Florida.

    Barton, Christopher P., editor. 2021. Trowels In the Trenches: Archaeology As Social Activism, University Press of Florida.

    Battle-Baptiste, Whitney. 2011. Black Feminist Archaeology, Routledge.

    Baugher, Sherene. 2014. Archaeology and Preservation of Gendered Landscapes, Springer, New York.

    Baugher, Sherene, and Richard Veit, editors. 2014. The Archaeology of American Cemeteries and Gravemarkers, University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

    Baugher, Sherene, and Robert W. Venables. 1987. Ceramics as Indicators of Status and Class in Eighteenth-Century New York. In Consumer Choice in Historical Archaeology, edited by Suzanne Spencer-Wood, pp. 31-53, Plenum Press.

    Baxter, Jane Eva. 2019. The Archaeology of American Childhood and Adolescence, University Press of Florida.

    Beaudry, Mary. 1996. Reinventing Historical Archaeology. In Historical Archaeology and the Study of American Culture, edited by Lu Ann De Cunzo and Bernard Herman. University of Tennessee Press.

    Beaudry, Mary, editor. 1988. Documentary Archaeology in the New World, Cambridge University Press.

    Beaudry, Mary C., Lauren J. Cook and Stephen A. Mrozowski. 1991. Artifacts and Active Voices: Material Culture as Social Discourse. In The Archaeology of Inequality, edited by Randall H. McGuire and Robert Paynter, pp. 150-191, Blackwell Publishers.

    Beaudry, Mary C., Janet Long, Henry M. Miller, Fraser D. Neiman and Gary Wheeler Stone. 2000. A Vessel Typology for Early Chesapeake Ceramics: The Potomac Typological System. In Approaches to Material Culture Research for Historical Archaeologists, compiled by David R. Brauner, pp. 11-36, Society for Historical Archaeology.

    Beaudry, Mary C., and Stephen A. Mrozowski. 2001. Cultural Space and Worker Identity in the Company City: Nineteenth-Century Lowell, Massachusetts. In The Archaeology of Urban Landscapes: Explorations in Slumland, edited by Alan Mayne and Tim Murray, Cambridge University Press.

    Bell, Alison. 2005. White Ethnogenesis and Gradual Capitalism: Perspectives from Colonial Archaeological Sites in the Chesapeake. American Anthropologist, 107(3): 446-59.

    Bell, Edward L. 1990. The Historical Archaeology of Mortuary Behavior: Coffin Hardware from Ux bridge, Massachusetts. Historical Archaeology 24: 54-78.

    Blakey, Michael L. 1997. Commentary: Past is Present: Comments on ‘In the Realm of Politics: Prospects for Public Participation in African-American Plantation Archaeology.’ Historical Archaeology 31(3): 140–145.

    Blakey, Michael L. 2001. Bioarchaeology of the African Diaspora in the Americas: Its Origins and Scope. Annual Review of Anthropology 30: 387-422.

    Blakey, Michael L. 2020. Archaeology under the Blinding Light of Race. Current Anthropology 61.

    Boudreaux III, Edmond A., Maureen Meyers, and Jay K. Johnson, editors. 2020. Contact, Colonialism, and Native Communities in the Southeastern United States, University Press of Florida.

    Bower, Beth A. 1985. The Pottery-Making Trade in Colonial Philadelphia: The Growth of an Early Urban Industry. In Domestic Pottery of the Northeastern United States, edited by Sarah P. Turnbaugh, pp. 265-284, Academic Press.

    Bowser, Brenda J. 2000. From Pottery to Politics: An Ethnoarchaeological Study of Political Factionalism, Ethnicity, and Domestic Pottery Style in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 7(3): 219-48.

    Brighton, Stephen A. 2009. Historical Archaeology of the Irish Diaspora: A Transnational Approach, University of Tennessee Press.

    Brooks, Alasdair, and Natascha Mehler, editors. 2017. The Country Where My Heart Is: Historical Archaeologies of Nationalism and National Identity, University Press of Florida.

    Brown, Gail. 2001. Wounded Knee: The Conflict of Interpretation.In Myth, Memory and the Making of the American Landscape, edited by Paul Shackel, University Press of Florida.

    Brown, Margaret Kimball and Lawrie Cena Dean. 1995. The French Colony in the Mid-Mississippi Valley. American Kestrel Books.

    Brown, Ras Michael. 2014. African-Atlantic Cultures and the South Carolina Lowcountry, Cambridge University Press, New York.

    Camp, Stacey Lynn. 2013. The Archaeology of Citizenship, University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

    Campbell, Colin. 1987. The Romantic Ethic and the Spirit of Modern Consumerism, Basil Blackwell.

    Carson, Cary. 1994. The Consumer Revolution in Colonial British America: Why Demand? In Of Consuming Interests: The Style of Life in the Eighteenth Century, edited by Cary Carson, Ronald Hoffman and Peter J. Albert, pp. 483-697, University Press of Virginia.

    Carson, Cary, Norman F. Barka, William M. Kelso, Garry Wheeler Stone and Dell Upton. 1981. Impermanent Architecture in the Southern American Colonies. Winterthur Portfolio 16(2/3): 135-96.

    Casella, Eleanor, and James Symonds, editors. 2005. Industrial Archaeology: Future Directions, Springer Press.

    Chacon, Yamilette, and Richard J. Chacon, editors. 2023. Archaeological and Ethnographic Evidence of Domination In Indigenous Latin America, University Press of Florida.

    Cha–Jua, Sundiata Keita. 2000. America's First Black Town, Brooklyn, Illinois, 1830–1915. University of Illinois Press.

    Chenoweth, John M. 2017. Simplicity, Equality, and Slavery: An Archaeology of Quakerism in the British Virgin Islands, 1740–1780, University Press of Florida.

    Christie, Jessica Joyce. 2021. Earth Politics and Intangible Heritage: Three Case Studies in the Americas, University Press of Florida.

    Cipolla, Craig N., and Katherine H. Hayes, editors. 2015. Rethinking Colonialism: Comparative Archaeological Approaches, University Press of Florida.

    Claasen, Cheryl, editor. 1992. Exploring Gender through Archaeology: Selected Papers from the 1991 Boone Conference, Prehistory Press.

    Cleland, Charles and James Fitting. 1968. The Crisis of Identity: Theory in Historic Sites Archaeology. The Conference of Historic Sites Archaeology Papers 2(2):124-138.

    Cobb, Charles R. 2019. The Archaeology of Southeastern Native American Landscapes of the Colonial Era, University Press of Florida.

    Connah, Graham. 2001. The Lake Innes Estate: Privilage and Servitude in Ninteenth-Century Australia. World Archaeology 33(1): 137-54.

    Cooksey, Susan, Robin Poynor, and Hein Vanhee, editors. 2013. Kongo Across the Waters, University of Florida Press, Gainesville.

    Cressey, Pamela J., John F. Stephens, Steven J. Shephard, and Barbara H. Magid. 1982. The Core-Periphery Relationship and the Archaeological Record in Alexandria, Virginia. In Archaeology of Urban America: The Search for Pattern and Process, edited by Roy S. Dickens, Jr., pp. 143-73, Academic Press.

    Crist, Thomas. 2002. Empowerment, Ecology and Evidence: The Relevance of Mortuary Archaeology to the Public. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara Little, University Press of Florida.

    Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, and Eugene Rochberg-Halton. 1981. The Meanings of Things: Domestic Symbols and the Self, Cambridge University Press.

    Davis, James. 1998. Frontier Illinois. Indiana University Press.

    Deagan, Kathleen. 1982. Avenues of Inquiry in Historical Archaeology. Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 5: 151-77.

    Deagan, Kathleen, and MacMahon, D. 1995. Fort Mose: Colonial America's Black Fortress of Freedom, University Press of Florida.

    De Cunzo, Lu Ann. 2004. A Historical Archaeology of Delaware: People, Contexts, and the Cultures of Agriculture, University of Tennessee Press.

    De Cunzo, Lu Ann, and John H. Jameson, editors. 2005. Unlocking The Past: Celebrating Historical Archaeology In North America, University Press of Florida.

    Deetz, James. 1965. The Dynamics of Stylistic Change in Arikara Ceramics. Illinois Studies in Anthropology, No. 4. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois.

    Deetz, James. 1987. Scientific Humanism and Humanistic Science: A Plea for Paradigmatic Pluralism in Historical Archaeology. In Mirror and Metaphor: Material and Social Constructions of Reality, Daniel W. Ingersoll, Jr. and Gordon Bronitsky, editors, pp. 367-380.

    Deetz, James. 1993. Flowerdew Hundred: The Archaeology of a Virginia Plantation, 1619-1864, University Press of Virginia.

    Deetz, James, and Patricia Scott Deetz. 2000. The Times of Their Lives: Life, Love, and Death in Plymouth Colony. W. H. Freeman, New York.

    Deetz, James, and Edwin S. Deflefsen. 1967. Death's Head, Cherub, Urn and Willow. Natural History 76(3): 29-37.

    Delgado, J. P., Marx, D. E., Lent, K., Grinnan, J. and DeCaro, A. 2023. “Clotilda:” The History and Archaeology of the Last Slave Ship, University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.

    Delle, James A. 1998. An Archaeology of Social Space: Analyzing Coffee Plantations in Jamaica's Blue Mountains, Plenum Press.

    Delle, James A. 2014. The Colonial Caribbean: Landscapes of Power in Jamaica's Plantation System, Cambridge University Press, New York.

    Delle, James A. 2019. The Archaeology of Northern Slavery and Freedom, University Press of Florida.

    Delle, James A., Mark W. Hauser, and Douglas V. Armstrong, editors. 2011. Out of Many, One People: The Historical Archaeology of Colonial Jamaica, University of Alabama Press.

    Delle, James A., Stephen A. Mrozowski, and Robert Paynter, editors. 2000. Lines that Divide: Historical Archaeologies of Race, Class, and Gender, University of Tennessee Press.

    Douglas, Mary, and Baron Isherwood. 1979. The World of Goods, Basic Books.

    Edwards-Ingram, Ywone D., and Andrew C. Edwards, editors. 2021. Historical Archaeology In the Twenty-First Century: Lessons From Colonial Williamsburg, University Press of Florida.

    Egan, Geoff, and R. L. Michael, editors. 1999. Old and New Worlds, Oxbow.

    Epperson, Terrence. 1999. The Contested Commons: Archaeologies of Race, Repression and Resistance in New York City. In Historical Archaeologies of Capitalism, edited by Mark Leone and Parker Potter, Klewer Academic Press.

    Epperson, Terrence. 1999. Constructing Difference: The Social and Spatial Order of the Chesapeake Plantation. In "I, Too Am America": Archaeological Studies of African-American Life, edited by Theresa A. Singleton, University Press of Virginia.

    Epperson, Terrence W. 2004. Critical Race Theory and the Archaeology of the African Diaspora. Historical Archaeology 38(1): 101–108.

    Ethridge, Robbie, and Eric E. Bowne, editors. 2020. The Historical Turn In Southeastern Archaeology, University Press of Florida.

    Falk, Lisa, editor. 1991. Historical Archaeology in Global Perspective, Smithsonian Institution Press.

    Falola, Toyin, and Akin Ogundiran, editors. 2007. Archaeology of Atlantic Africa and the African Diaspora, Indiana University Press.

    Farnsworth, Paul, editor. 2001. Island Lives: Historical Archaeologies of the Caribbean, University Alabama Press.

    Feder, Kenneth L. 1994. A Village of Outcasts: Historical Archaeology and Documentary Research at the Lighthouse Site, Mayfield.

    Fellows, Kristen R., Angela J. Smith, and Anna M. Munns, editors. 2020. Historical Sex Work: New Contributions from History and Archaeology, University Press of Florida.

    Fennell, Christopher. 2000. Conjuring Boundaries: Inferring Past Identities from Religious Artifacts. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 4(4): 281-313.

    Fennell, Christopher. 2003. Group Identity, Individual Creativity and Symbolic Generation in a BaKongo Diaspora. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 7(1): 1-31.

    Fennell, Christopher. 2007. Crossroads and Cosmologies: Diasporas and Ethnogenesis in the New World, University Press of Florida.

    Fennell, Christopher. 2011. Early African America: Archaeological Studies of Significance and Diversity. Journal of Archaeological Research 19(1): 1-49.

    Fennell, Christopher. 2017. Broken Chains and Subverted Plans: Ethnicity, Race, Commodities, University Press of Florida.

    Fennell, Christopher. 2021. The Archaeology of Craft and Industry, University Press of Florida.

    Fennell, Christopher, editor. 2008. African Diaspora Archaeology, Society for Historical Archaeology.

    Fennell, Christopher, editor. 2011. Revealing Landscapes, Society for Historical Archaeology.

    Fennell, Christopher, editor. 2016. Investigations of Craft and Industrial Enterprise, Society for Historical Archaeology.

    Fennell, Christopher, Paul A. Shackel, Terrance J. Martin, editors. 2010. New Philadelphia: Racism, Community, and the Illinois Frontier specially edited thematic issue of Historical Archaeology 44(1).

    Ferguson, Leland, editor. 1977. Historical Archaeology and the Importance of Material Things, Society for Historical Archaeology.

    Ferris, Neal, Rodney Harrison, and Michael V. Wilcox, editors. 2015. Rethinking Colonial Pasts through Archaeology, Oxford University Press.

    Fisher, Charles, editor. 2003. People, Places, and Material Things: Historical Archaeology of Albany, New York, New York State Museum Bulletin 499, New York State Museum.

    Fitts, Mary Elizabeth. 2017. Fit for War: Sustenance and Order in the Mid-Eighteenth-Century Catawba Nation, University Press of Florida.

    Flewellen, Ayana Omilade. 2017. Locating Marginalized Historical Narratives at Kingsley Plantation. Historical Archaeology 51(1): 71–87.

    Flewellen, Ayana Omilade, Justin P. Dunnavant, Alicia Odewale, Alexandra Jones, Tsione Wolde-Michael, Zoe Crossland, and Maria Franklin. 2021. ‘The Future of Archaeology is Antiracist’: Archaeology in the Time of Black Lives Matter. American Antiquity 86(2): 224– 243.

    Fowler, William R. 2022. A Historical Archaeology of Early Spanish Colonial Urbanism in Central America, University Press of Florida.

    Fox, Georgia L. 2015. The Archaeology of Smoking and Tobacco, University Press of Florida.

    Fox, Georgia L., editor. 2020. An Archaeology and History of a Caribbean Sugar Plantation on Antigua, University Press of Florida.

    Fracchia, Adam D., and Patricia M. Samford. 2023. Below Baltimore: An Archaeology of Charm City, University Press of Florida.

    Franklin, Maria. 1997a. ‘Power to the People’: Sociopolitics and the Archaeology of Black Americans. Historical Archaeology 31(3): 36–50.

    Franklin, Maria. 1997b. Why Are There So Few Black American Archaeologists? Antiquity 71(274): 799– 801.

    Franklin, Maria. 2001. A Black Feminist-Inspired Archaeology? Journal of Social Archaeology 1(1): 108–125.

    Franklin, Maria. 2001. The Archaeological Dimensions of Soul Food: Interpreting Race, Culture and Afro-Virginian Identity. In Race and the Archaeology of Identity, edited by Charles Orser, Jr., University of Utah Press.

    Franklin, Maria, Justin P. Dunnavant, Ayana Omilade Flewellen, and Alicia Odewale. 2020. The Future is Now: Archaeology and the Eradication of Anti-Blackness. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 24(4): 753–766.

    Franklin, Maria, and Garrett Fesler. 1999. The Exploration of Ethnicity and the Historical Archaeological Record. In Historical Archaeology, Identity Formation, and the Interpretation of Ethnicity, edited by Maria Franklin and Garrett Fesler, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.

    Franklin, M., Dunnavant, J. P., Flewellen, A.O., and Odewale, A. (2022). The Future is Now: Archaeology and the Eradication of Anti-Blackness. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 24: 753–766.

    Franklin, Maria, and Larry McKee. 2004. African Diaspora Archaeologies: Present Insights and Expanding Discourses. Historical Archaeology 38(1): 1–9.

    Funari, Pedro Paulo A., Martin Hall, and Sian Jones, editors. 1999. Historical Archaeology: Back from the Edge, Routledge, One World Archaeology 31.

    Funari, Pedro Paulo A., and Charles E. Orser, Jr., editors. 2014. Current Perspectives on the Archaeology of African Slavery in Latin America, Springer Press, New York.

    Funari, Pedro Paulo A., and Maria Ximena Senatore, editors. 2014. Archaeology of Culture Contact and Colonialism in Spanish and Portuguese America , Springer, New York.

    Gall, M., and R. Veit, editors. 2017. Archaeologies of African American Life in the Upper Mid-Atlantic, University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.

    Garman, James C. 1994. Viewing the Color Line Through the Material Culture of Death. Historical Archaeology 28(3): 74-93.

    Gathercole, Peter, and David Lowenthal, editors. 1990. The Politics of the Past, Unwin Hyman.

    Geier, Clarence, Lawrence E. Babits, Douglas Scott, and David Orr, editors. 2010. The Historical Archaeology of Military Sites, Texas A&M University Press.

    Geier, Clarence R., Douglas D. Scott, and Lawrence E. Babits, editors. 2014. From These Honored Dead: Historical Archaeology of the American Civil War, University Press of Florida, Gaineville.

    Geier, Clarence R., Douglas D. Scott, Lawrence E. Babits, and David Orr, editors. 2010. Historical Archaeology of Military Sites: Method and Topic, Texas A&M University Press.

    Geier, Clarence R., and Susan E. Winter, editors. 1996. Look to the Earth: Historical Archaeology and the American Civil War, University of Tennessee Press.

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