Archaeologists investigating sites of craft and industrial enterprise often puzzle over a domain of bewildering ruins. Locations of remarkable energy, tumult, and creativity stand silent. This book provides an overview of the archaeology of American craft and industrial enterprises, outlines developments in theories, research questions, and interpretative frameworks, and presents case studies from a wide range of subjects (view this summary in pdf).
Research focused on industrial enterprises traverses a spectrum of perspectives. Some limit their efforts to recording, mapping, and studying the mechanics of a site. Others examine comparative questions of changes of technologies over time and space. Many analysts look away from the buildings and equipment of the workplace and focus instead on the workers, their families, residences, lifeways, and health experiences. With many sites presenting standing ruins, historians and archaeologists often encounter local stakeholder groups who wish to promote heritage themes and tourism potentials.
Conjectural reconstruction drawing of the Pottersville kiln in Edgefield, SC,
by Oliver Mueller-Heubach, courtesy of Robert Hunter and Oliver Mueller-Heubach.
All of these perspectives can be pursued with significant advances in research and curation methods. Investigations often range from microscopic analysis of product constituents to large-scale, three dimensional recording of locations and features with high-resolution, laser technologies. Past debates questioned whether primary emphasis should be on heritage recording or on archaeological research questions. More recent trends focus on collaborations across interest groups.
This book's expanded table of contents follows, along with a bibliography of sources and a list of internet resources related to industrial archaeology.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction: Craft, Industry, and Heritage
Manufacturing and Anthropogenic Impacts
2. Making and Harvesting Commodities: Episodes of Craft Growing to Industry
Definitions, Methods, and Theories
Excavating Histories of Craft and Industrial Enterprises
Rivers and Textiles
3. Arteries and Flow
Winning and Losing in Cornell’s Pottery
Spinning Whimsies at Dyott’s Glassworks
Hand Tools, Trip Hammers, and Castaways at John Russell’s Cutlery
Making Do in Schroeders’ Saddle Tree Factory
Of Oysters, Abalone, and Salmon
Many Storied Domains of Bread, Biscuits, and Cheese
Artisan Support for an Armaments Factory
Bottles and Beer at Work and Home in Harpers Ferry
Binderies, Tanneries, and Social Perceptions
Races, Lime, and Fire at Shepherdstown Cement Mill
Some Observations and Affordances
Rivers, Canals, and Shipping
Building the Rail Lines
Iron Trajectories and Wasteful Impacts
Pullman’s Rail Cars and Factory Town
Trends and Intersections
Rails and Wood Cutting in West Virginia
5. Forges, Furnaces, and Metallurgy
Assemblies and Tools of Mining
From Cornwall to the Great Lakes
Working the Cortez and Comstock Terrains in Nevada
Comparative Cases of Ethnicities, Cohesion, and Prejudices
Carving Coal in Berwind and Ludlow, Colorado
Mining and Murder at Lattimer, Pennsylvania
Ridge Barriers, Man Camps, and Magnetometers among the Oil Fields
Fueling Other Industries
Methods for the Melt
6. Craft at a Prodigious Scale: Potteries of Edgefield, South Carolina
Early Smelting in New Mexico
Saugus Iron of Massachusetts
Trenton Steel Works of New Jersey
Strategies and Bloomeries in the Chesapeake
Landscape Challenges in Blacklog Narrows
Iron Plantations in South Carolina and Maryland
Women of Iron
Bluff Furnace of Tennessee
Tahawus Blast Innovations in New York
West Point Foundry on the Hudson
Jackson Iron Company of Michigan
Tredegar Iron and Cannons in Virginia
Hawks Nest Tunnel in West Virginia
Innovations, Pragmatic Choices, and Personal Costs
Manufacturing Stoneware in Regional and Atlantic Contexts
7. Heritage Dynamics and Concluding Observations
Diverse Research Initiatives
Evolving Questions and Methods
Heritage Preserved and Repurposed
About the author
I am an anthropologist specializing in historical archaeology as a Professor of Anthropology and Law at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and a faculty affiliate of the Department of Landscape Architecture, College of Law, Center for African Studies, and the Department of African American Studies. I also serve as a Visiting Professor of Law at the University of Chicago Law School, teaching seminars on the intersections of racism, law, social norms, and the social sciences.
My empirical research addresses subjects in trans-Atlantic historical archaeology and the dynamics of social group affiliations and lifeways among Europeans, Africans, and various social groups within the Americas. These research initiatives include interpretative frameworks focusing on social group identities, ethnic group dynamics and racialization, diaspora studies, regional systems and commodity chains, stylistic and symbolic elements of material culture, consumption patterns, and analysis of craft and industrial enterprises. I am also the founding editor of the Journal of African Diaspora Archaeology and Heritage, publisher and past editor of the African Diaspora Archaeology Newsletter, member of the editorial board of the International Journal of Historical Archaeology, past member of the board of directors of the Society for Historical Archaeology, and past president of the Illinois Archaeological Survey. A list of my publications, including other books, research papers, other works in progress, and course offerings is provided in my resume.
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Internet Resources on Industrial Archaeology
Archaeology of Edgefield, SC Pottery Communities (U. Illinois):
Archaeo-Metallurgical Bibliography (Oxford U.):
Association for Industrial Archaeology:
Cliff Mine Archaeology Project (MTU):
European Route of Industrial Heritage:
General Archaeology Resources (U. Illinois):
Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS),
Historic American Engineering Record (HAER), and
Historic American Landscapes Survey (HALS) (Library of Congress):
Historical Metallurgy Society:
History of Sanitary Sewers:
Industrial Archaeology Summary (M. Palmer, Oxford U. Biblios.):
Industrial Heritage & Art (F. Welgemoed's social media page):
Industrial Heritage Society of Ireland:
Lewis Hine's Photography on Child Labor (U.S. Archives):
Mining History Association:
Mining History Network:
Modern Ruins, Photographs by P. Buehler:
National Archives Guides to HABS/HAER:
National Museum of Industrial History, Bethlehem, Pa.:
Nat. Park Service, Heritage Documentation (HABS/HAER/HALS):
Newcomen Int'l Soc. for History of Engineering & Technology:
Railroad Histories Resources (cf. Polk 2021)
Scottish industrial Heritage Society, Publications:
Society for Industrial Archaeology:
Society for the History of Technology:
The Int'l Comm. for the Conservation of the Industrial Heritage (TICCIH):
The Way We Worked (U.S. Archives):
U.S. Energy History Visualization (U. Chicago):
U.S. Geological Survey, Publications Warehouse:
U.S. Patent & Trademark Databases:
Svalbard Miners Tribute, Longyearbyen.
Last updated: Jan. 15, 2021