Archaeologists investigating sites of craft and industrial enterprise often puzzle over a domain of bewildering ruins. Locations of remarkable energy, tumult, and creativity stand silent. This book provides an overview of the archaeology of American craft and industrial enterprises, outlines developments in theories, research questions, and interpretative frameworks, and presents case studies from a wide range of subjects (view this summary in pdf).
Research focused on industrial enterprises traverses a spectrum of perspectives. Some limit their efforts to recording, mapping, and studying the mechanics of a site. Others examine comparative questions of changes of technologies over time and space. Many analysts look away from the buildings and equipment of the workplace and focus instead on the workers, their families, residences, lifeways, and health experiences. With many sites presenting standing ruins, historians and archaeologists often encounter local stakeholder groups who wish to promote heritage themes and tourism potentials.
Conjectural reconstruction drawing of the Pottersville kiln in Edgefield, SC,
by Oliver Mueller-Heubach, courtesy of Robert Hunter and Oliver Mueller-Heubach.
All of these perspectives can be pursued with significant advances in research and curation methods. Investigations often range from microscopic analysis of product constituents to large-scale, three dimensional recording of locations and features with high-resolution, laser technologies. Past debates questioned whether primary emphasis should be on heritage recording or on archaeological research questions. More recent trends focus on collaborations across interest groups.
This expansive yet concise survey discusses archaeological research from sites across the United States that once manufactured, harvested, or processed commodities. Through studies of craft enterprise and the industrial revolution, this book uncovers key insights into American history from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries.
Exploring evidence from textile mills, glassworks, cutlery manufacturers, and tanneries, this book describes the complicated transition from skilled manual work to mechanized production methods, and I offer examples of how artisanal skill remained important in many factory contexts. The book also traces the distribution and transportation of goods along canals and railroads. This study delves into sites of extraction, such as lumber mills, copper mines, and coal fields, and reviews diverse methods for smelting and shaping iron. The book features an in-depth case study of my collaborative, multi-year project of investigations of Edgefield, South Carolina, a community that pioneered the production of alkaline-glazed stoneware pottery.
I outline shifts within the field of industrial archaeology over the past century that have culminated in the recognition that these locations of remarkable enterprise represent the lives and ingenuity of many people. In addition, I point to ways the field can help inform sustainable strategies for industrial enterprises in the present day.
Reviewers of this study observe —
“Fennell offers us a fresh and exciting expansion of industrial archaeology through the lens of craft production. This book, with its impressive array of case studies, unequivocally demonstrates the relevance of historical and industrial archaeology to the broader anthropological project.” — Charles E. Orser Jr., author of The Archaeology of Race and Racialization in Historic America.
“Sheds light on the vast array of craft and industrial work that shaped the American experience and the North American landscape. Fennell amasses a broad range of archaeological scholarship to identify contributions and new directions.” — Paul J. White, author of The Archaeology of American Mining.
“Fennell has penned a fascinating, enlightening work. . . . Without reservation, I recommend that all archaeologists and anthropologists read this book. As someone from Cleveland, Ohio, growing up in the heart of the rustbelt, I now have a new and enduring appreciation for the industrial archaeology around me, and for the countless people who lived their lives in and among historic craft and industry. As an experimental archaeologist, my mind is racing regarding what an experimental industrial archaeology might look like. For these enhanced perspectives, I am in Fennell's debt.” — Metin I. Eren, Department of Anthropology, Kent State University, Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology vol. 48, 2023 (link).
“Fennell offers an updated review of how archaeologists have drawn meaning from the material culture of industries in the United States. As the title hints, the author's interest is in transformations between small-scale craft enterprises and sites of grander scale as found in archaeology and research. A brief glance at the book reveals that Fennell drew from a remarkable number of published sources, citing approximately 540 in just 167 pages.” — T. Arron Kotlensky, Pennsylvania Dept. of Transportation, Historical Archaeology, 2022.
This book’s expanded table of contents follows, along with a bibliography of sources and a list of internet resources related to industrial archaeology.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction: Craft, Industry, and Heritage
Manufacturing and Anthropogenic Impacts
2. Making and Harvesting Commodities: Episodes of Craft Growing to Industry
Definitions, Methods, and Theories
Excavating Histories of Craft and Industrial Enterprises
Rivers and Textiles
3. Arteries and Flow
Winning and Losing in Cornell’s Pottery
Spinning Whimsies at Dyott’s Glassworks
Hand Tools, Trip Hammers, and Castaways at John Russell’s Cutlery
Making Do in Schroeders’ Saddle Tree Factory
Of Oysters, Abalone, and Salmon
Many Storied Domains of Bread, Biscuits, and Cheese
Artisan Support for an Armaments Factory
Bottles and Beer at Work and Home in Harpers Ferry
Binderies, Tanneries, and Social Perceptions
Races, Lime, and Fire at Shepherdstown Cement Mill
Some Observations and Affordances
Rivers, Canals, and Shipping
Building the Rail Lines
Iron Trajectories and Wasteful Impacts
Pullman’s Rail Cars and Factory Town
Trends and Intersections
Rails and Wood Cutting in West Virginia
5. Forges, Furnaces, and Metallurgy
Assemblies and Tools of Mining
From Cornwall to the Great Lakes
Working the Cortez and Comstock Terrains in Nevada
Comparative Cases of Ethnicities, Cohesion, and Prejudices
Carving Coal in Berwind and Ludlow, Colorado
Mining and Murder at Lattimer, Pennsylvania
Ridge Barriers, Man Camps, and Magnetometers among the Oil Fields
Fueling Other Industries
Methods for the Melt
6. Craft at a Prodigious Scale: Potteries of Edgefield, South Carolina
Early Smelting in New Mexico
Saugus Iron of Massachusetts
Trenton Steel Works of New Jersey
Strategies and Bloomeries in the Chesapeake
Landscape Challenges in Blacklog Narrows
Iron Plantations in South Carolina and Maryland
Women of Iron
Bluff Furnace of Tennessee
Tahawus Blast Innovations in New York
West Point Foundry on the Hudson
Jackson Iron Company of Michigan
Tredegar Iron and Cannons in Virginia
Hawks Nest Tunnel in West Virginia
Innovations, Pragmatic Choices, and Personal Costs
Manufacturing Stoneware in Regional and Atlantic Contexts
7. Heritage Dynamics and Concluding Observations
Diverse Research Initiatives
Evolving Questions and Methods
Heritage Preserved and Repurposed
About the author
I am an anthropologist specializing in historical archaeology as a Professor of Anthropology and Law at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and a faculty affiliate of the Department of Landscape Architecture, College of Law, Center for African Studies, and the Department of African American Studies. I also serve as a yearly Visiting Professor of Law at the University of Chicago Law School, teaching seminars on the intersections of racism, law, social norms, and the social sciences.
My empirical research addresses subjects in trans-Atlantic historical archaeology and the dynamics of social group affiliations and lifeways among Europeans, Africans, and various social groups within the Americas. These research initiatives include interpretative frameworks focusing on social group identities, ethnic group dynamics and racialization, diaspora studies, regional systems and commodity chains, stylistic and symbolic elements of material culture, consumption patterns, and analysis of craft and industrial enterprises. I am also the founding editor of the Journal of African Diaspora Archaeology and Heritage, publisher and editor of the African Diaspora Archaeology Newsletter, member of the editorial board of the International Journal of Historical Archaeology, member of the board of directors of the Coalition for Archaeological Synthesis, past member of the board of directors of the Society for Historical Archaeology, and past president of the Illinois Archaeological Survey. A list of my publications, including other books, research papers, other works in progress, and course offerings is provided in my resume.
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Internet Resources on Industrial Archaeology
American Canals, 1820-1860 (American Panorama Project):
American Canals Guides:
American Canal Society:
Archaeology of Edgefield, SC Pottery Communities (U. Illinois):
Archaeo-Metallurgical Bibliography (Oxford U.):
Association for Industrial Archaeology:
Black Craftspeople Digital Archive:
Bridge Truss Types (HAER):
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal in Washington County, Md.:
Cliff Mine Archaeology Project (MTU):
Construction History Society of America:
Crafting a Samurai Sword (Aeon):
Glimpse Inside a Samurai Sword Workshop
Derwent Valley Mills History (UK, World Heritage Site):
Julius Woeltz, Bauxite, mural in the Post Office, Benton, Arkansas.
Down the Old Potomac, Canal and Rail Traffic (1917 film):
East Cornwall (UK) Mining History Association:
Edgefield, South Carolina Potteries Archaeology Project:
Elsecar, UK Works, 1880, 3D Reconstruction (Barnsley Museums):
European Route of Industrial Heritage:
Falling Creek Ironworks, Virginia:
Flemish Ass’n for Industrial Archaeology:
General Archaeology Resources (U. Illinois):
Greenwich (UK) Industrial History:
Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS),
Historic American Engineering Record (HAER), and
Historic American Landscapes Survey (HALS) (Library of Congress):
Historical Metallurgy Society:
History of Sanitary Sewers:
Industrial Archaeology Review (Taylor & Francis):
Industrial Archaeology Summary (M. Palmer, Oxford U. Biblios.):
Industrial Crafts Research Network:
Industrial Heritage & Art (F. Welgemoed’s social media page):
Boris Artzybasheff, Wire Mills, 1935.
Industrial Heritage Society of Ireland:
Industrial Photography Archive:
Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining:
Iron Bridge Gorge and Coalbrookdale (UK):
Lewis Hine’s Photography on Child Labor (U.S. Archives):
London Canal Museum:
London Museum of Water & Steam, Engines Collections:
Mining History Association:
Diego Rivera, The Sugar Mill, Fresco,
Court of Labor, Ministry of Public Education, Mexico City, 1923.
Mining History Network:
Modern Ruins, Photographs by P. Buehler:
National Archives Guides to HABS/HAER:
National Assoc. of Mining History (UK), Internet Resource Links:
National Iron and Steel Heritage Museum:
National Museum of Industrial History, Bethlehem, Pa.:
National Park Service, Heritage Documentation (HABS/HAER/HALS):
National Park Service, Industrial Heritage Parks and Sites:
Newcomen Int’l Soc. for History of Engineering & Technology:
Oxford House Ind’l History Society & Risca Museum
Peak District (UK) Mines Historical Society:
Rene Magritte, Time Transfixed, 1938.
Railroad Histories Resources (cf. Polk 2021)
Scottish industrial Heritage Society, Publications:
Working the Lathe, WWI, Parsons Engineering Works,
Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, C. Tyne and Wear Archive.
Society for Industrial Archaeology:
Society for the History of Technology:
Stephen Mallon Photography, Machines of Interest:
The Int’l Comm. for the Conservation of the Industrial Heritage (TICCIH):
The Way We Worked (U.S. Archives):
Tide Mills Institute:
Treasury of Weary Souls:
Enslaved African Americans Who Built Industries:
UNESCO World Heritage List, Industrial Related Sites:
U.S. Energy History Visualization (U. Chicago):
U.S. Geological Survey, Publications Warehouse:
U.S. Patent & Trademark Databases:
Virginia Canals and Navigations Society:
Wabash & Erie Canal History:
Wealden Iron Research Group, Online Publications:
Western Mining History:
Svalbard Miners Tribute, Longyearbyen.
Last updated: Jan. 22, 2023