The Archaeology of Craft and Industry

by Christopher C. Fennell
University Press of Florida (2021)

Other books:
-- Craft & Industrial Enterprise --

-- Broken Chains and Subverted Plans --

-- Crossroads and Cosmologies --

-- African Diaspora Archaeology --

-- Revealing Landscapes
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The Archaeology of Craft and Industry, in the "American Experience
in Archaeological Perspective" book series, University Press of Florida, 2021.
ISBN-10: 0813069041, ISBN-13: 978-0813069043, U. Press Florida, Amazon
The shapes arise!
Shapes of factories, arsenals, foundries, markets;
Shapes of the two-threaded tracks of railroads;
Shapes of the sleepers of bridges, vast frameworks, girders, arches;
Shapes of the fleets of barges, tows, lake and canal craft, river craft.

— Walt Whitman, 1871, in Song of the Broad-Axe

Archaeologists investigating sites of craft and industrial enterprise often puzzle over a domain of bewildering ruins. Locations of remarkable energy, tumult, and creativity stand silent. This book provides an overview of the archaeology of American craft and industrial enterprises, outlines developments in theories, research questions, and interpretative frameworks, and presents case studies from a wide range of subjects (view this summary in pdf).

Research focused on industrial enterprises traverses a spectrum of perspectives. Some limit their efforts to recording, mapping, and studying the mechanics of a site. Others examine comparative questions of changes of technologies over time and space. Many analysts look away from the buildings and equipment of the workplace and focus instead on the workers, their families, residences, lifeways, and health experiences. With many sites presenting standing ruins, historians and archaeologists often encounter local stakeholder groups who wish to promote heritage themes and tourism potentials.

Pottersville kiln reconstruction drawing
Conjectural reconstruction drawing of the Pottersville kiln in Edgefield, SC,
by Oliver Mueller-Heubach, courtesy of Robert Hunter and Oliver Mueller-Heubach.

All of these perspectives can be pursued with significant advances in research and curation methods. Investigations often range from microscopic analysis of product constituents to large-scale, three dimensional recording of locations and features with high-resolution, laser technologies. Past debates questioned whether primary emphasis should be on heritage recording or on archaeological research questions. More recent trends focus on collaborations across interest groups.

This expansive yet concise survey discusses archaeological research from sites across the United States that once manufactured, harvested, or processed commodities. Through studies of craft enterprise and the industrial revolution, this book uncovers key insights into American history from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries.

Exploring evidence from textile mills, glassworks, cutlery manufacturers, and tanneries, this book describes the complicated transition from skilled manual work to mechanized production methods, and I offer examples of how artisanal skill remained important in many factory contexts. The book also traces the distribution and transportation of goods along canals and railroads. This study delves into sites of extraction, such as lumber mills, copper mines, and coal fields, and reviews diverse methods for smelting and shaping iron. The book features an in-depth case study of my collaborative, multi-year project of investigations of Edgefield, South Carolina, a community that pioneered the production of alkaline-glazed stoneware pottery.

I outline shifts within the field of industrial archaeology over the past century that have culminated in the recognition that these locations of remarkable enterprise represent the lives and ingenuity of many people. In addition, I point to ways the field can help inform sustainable strategies for industrial enterprises in the present day.

Peer reviewers of this study observe —
“Fennell offers us a fresh and exciting expansion of industrial archaeology through the lens of craft production. This book, with its impressive array of case studies, unequivocally demonstrates the relevance of historical and industrial archaeology to the broader anthropological project.” — Charles E. Orser Jr., author of The Archaeology of Race and Racialization in Historic America.
“Sheds light on the vast array of craft and industrial work that shaped the American experience and the North American landscape. Fennell amasses a broad range of archaeological scholarship to identify contributions and new directions.” — Paul J. White, author of The Archaeology of American Mining.

This book’s expanded table of contents follows, along with a bibliography of sources and a list of internet resources related to industrial archaeology.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction: Craft, Industry, and Heritage
    Manufacturing and Anthropogenic Impacts
    Definitions, Methods, and Theories
    Excavating Histories of Craft and Industrial Enterprises
2. Making and Harvesting Commodities: Episodes of Craft Growing to Industry
    Rivers and Textiles
    Winning and Losing in Cornell’s Pottery
    Spinning Whimsies at Dyott’s Glassworks
    Hand Tools, Trip Hammers, and Castaways at John Russell’s Cutlery
    Making Do in Schroeders’ Saddle Tree Factory
    Of Oysters, Abalone, and Salmon
    Many Storied Domains of Bread, Biscuits, and Cheese
    Artisan Support for an Armaments Factory
    Bottles and Beer at Work and Home in Harpers Ferry
    Binderies, Tanneries, and Social Perceptions
    Races, Lime, and Fire at Shepherdstown Cement Mill
    Some Observations and Affordances
3. Arteries and Flow
    Rivers, Canals, and Shipping
    Building the Rail Lines
    Iron Trajectories and Wasteful Impacts
    Pullman’s Rail Cars and Factory Town
    Trends and Intersections
4. Extraction
    Rails and Wood Cutting in West Virginia
    Assemblies and Tools of Mining
    From Cornwall to the Great Lakes
    Colossal Montana
    Hydraulic Assaults
    Working the Cortez and Comstock Terrains in Nevada
    Comparative Cases of Ethnicities, Cohesion, and Prejudices
    Carving Coal in Berwind and Ludlow, Colorado
    Mining and Murder at Lattimer, Pennsylvania
    Ridge Barriers, Man Camps, and Magnetometers among the Oil Fields
    Fueling Other Industries
5. Forges, Furnaces, and Metallurgy
    Methods for the Melt
    Early Smelting in New Mexico
    Saugus Iron of Massachusetts
    Trenton Steel Works of New Jersey
    Strategies and Bloomeries in the Chesapeake
    Landscape Challenges in Blacklog Narrows
    Iron Plantations in South Carolina and Maryland
    Women of Iron
    Bluff Furnace of Tennessee
    Tahawus Blast Innovations in New York
    West Point Foundry on the Hudson
    Jackson Iron Company of Michigan
    Tredegar Iron and Cannons in Virginia
    Hawks Nest Tunnel in West Virginia
    Innovations, Pragmatic Choices, and Personal Costs
6. Craft at a Prodigious Scale: Potteries of Edgefield, South Carolina
    Manufacturing Stoneware in Regional and Atlantic Contexts
    Archaeological Revelations
    Diverse Research Initiatives
7. Heritage Dynamics and Concluding Observations
    Evolving Questions and Methods
    Heritage Preserved and Repurposed
    Future Prospects

About the author

I am an anthropologist specializing in historical archaeology as a Professor of Anthropology and Law at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and a faculty affiliate of the Department of Landscape Architecture, College of Law, Center for African Studies, and the Department of African American Studies. I also serve as a Visiting Professor of Law at the University of Chicago Law School, teaching seminars on the intersections of racism, law, social norms, and the social sciences.

My empirical research addresses subjects in trans-Atlantic historical archaeology and the dynamics of social group affiliations and lifeways among Europeans, Africans, and various social groups within the Americas. These research initiatives include interpretative frameworks focusing on social group identities, ethnic group dynamics and racialization, diaspora studies, regional systems and commodity chains, stylistic and symbolic elements of material culture, consumption patterns, and analysis of craft and industrial enterprises. I am also the founding editor of the Journal of African Diaspora Archaeology and Heritage, publisher and past editor of the African Diaspora Archaeology Newsletter, member of the editorial board of the International Journal of Historical Archaeology, past member of the board of directors of the Society for Historical Archaeology, and past president of the Illinois Archaeological Survey. A list of my publications, including other books, research papers, other works in progress, and course offerings is provided in my resume.

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Reginald Haggar, The Gordon Pottery, Tunstall, 1969.

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Internet Resources on Industrial Archaeology

American Canals, 1820-1860 (American Panorama Project):
https://dsl.richmond.edu/panorama/canals/

American Canals Guides:
https://americancanals.org/american-canal-guides/

American Canal Society:
https://americancanalsociety.org/

Archaeology of Edgefield, SC Pottery Communities (U. Illinois):
http://www.histarch.illinois.edu/Edgefield/

Archaeo-Metallurgical Bibliography (Oxford U.):
http://users.ox.ac.uk/~salter/arch-metals/bib01.htm

Association for Industrial Archaeology:
https://industrial-archaeology.org/
Black Craftspeople Digital Archive:
https://blackcraftspeople.org/

Bridge Truss Types (HAER):
https://www.nps.gov/hdp/samples/HAER/truss%20poster.pdf

Chesapeake & Ohio Canal in Washington County, Md.:
http://www.whilbr.org/CandOCanal/index.aspx

Cliff Mine Archaeology Project (MTU):
https://cliffmine.wordpress.com/

Construction History Society of America:
https://www.constructionhistorysociety.org/

Derwent Valley Mills History (UK, World Heritage Site):
http://www.derwentvalleymills.org/

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Julius Woeltz, Bauxite, mural in the Post Office, Benton, Arkansas.

Down the Old Potomac, Canal and Rail Traffic (1917 film):
https://www.loc.gov/item/00694119

East Cornwall (UK) Mining History Association:
http://www.mininghistoryeastcornwall.btck.co.uk/

European Route of Industrial Heritage:
https://www.erih.net/

Falling Creek Ironworks, Virginia:
https://www.chesterfield.gov/4299/History

Flemish Ass’n for Industrial Archaeology:
http://www.industrieelerfgoed.be/content/english

General Archaeology Resources (U. Illinois):
http://faculty.las.illinois.edu/cfennell/bookmark2.html

Greenwich (UK) Industrial History:
https://greenwichindustrialhistory.blogspot.com/

Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS),
Historic American Engineering Record (HAER), and
Historic American Landscapes Survey (HALS) (Library of Congress): https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/

Historic Bridges:
https://www.yourlawyer.com/library/historic-bridges-brooklyn-bridge-and-beyond/

Historical Metallurgy Society:
https://historicalmetallurgy.org/

History of Sanitary Sewers:
http://www.sewerhistory.org/

Industrial Archaeology Summary (M. Palmer, Oxford U. Biblios.):
https://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/

Industrial Heritage & Art (F. Welgemoed’s social media page):
https://www.facebook.com/groups/464056810314375/

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Boris Artzybasheff, Wire Mills, 1935.

Industrial Heritage Society of Ireland:
https://ihai.ie/

Industrial Photography Archive:
http://www.hfinster.de/StahlArt2/archive-en.html

Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining:
https://www.iom3.org/

Iron Bridge Gorge and Coalbrookdale (UK):
https://www.ironbridge.org.uk/our-story/the-iron-bridge/

Lewis Hine’s Photography on Child Labor (U.S. Archives):
https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/hine-photos

London Canal Museum:
https://www.canalmuseum.org.uk/

London Museum of Water & Steam, Engines Collections:
https://waterandsteam.org.uk/our-engines/

Mining History Association:
https://www.mininghistoryassociation.org/

image
Diego Rivera, The Sugar Mill, Fresco,
Court of Labor, Ministry of Public Education, Mexico City, 1923.

Mining History Network:
https://projects.exeter.ac.uk/mhn/welcome.html

Modern Ruins, Photographs by P. Buehler:
http://modern-ruins.com/

National Archives Guides to HABS/HAER:
https://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/515.html

National Assoc. of Mining History (UK), Internet Resource Links:
https://www.namho.org/links.php

National Iron and Steel Heritage Museum:
National Museum of Industrial History, Bethlehem, Pa.:
https://www.nmih.org/virtualmuseum/

National Park Service, Heritage Documentation (HABS/HAER/HALS):
https://www.nps.gov/hdp/

National Park Service, Industrial Heritage Parks and Sites:
https://www.nps.gov/subjects/industry/visit.htm

Newcomen Int’l Soc. for History of Engineering & Technology:
https://www.newcomen.com/

Oxford House Ind’l History Society & Risca Museum
Peak District (UK) Mines Historical Society:
image
Rene Magritte, Time Transfixed, 1938.

Railroad Histories Resources (cf. Polk 2021)
Scottish industrial Heritage Society, Publications:
http://www.sihs.co.uk/publications/

image
Working the Lathe, WWI, Parsons Engineering Works,
Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, C. Tyne and Wear Archive.

Society for Industrial Archaeology:
https://www.sia-web.org/
Society for the History of Technology:
https://www.historyoftechnology.org/

Stephen Mallon Photography, Machines of Interest:
https://stephenmallon.com/

Svalbard Archaeology:
http://www.svalbardarchaeology.org/

The Int’l Comm. for the Conservation of the Industrial Heritage (TICCIH):
https://ticcih.org/
The Way We Worked (U.S. Archives):
https://www.archives.gov/press/press-kits/way-we-worked

Treasury of Weary Souls:
Enslaved African Americans Who Built Industries:
http://www.treasuryofwearysouls.com/

UNESCO World Heritage List, Industrial Related Sites:
https://www.erih.net/service/links/category/

U.S. Energy History Visualization (U. Chicago):
https://us-sankey.rcc.uchicago.edu/

U.S. Geological Survey, Publications Warehouse:
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/

U.S. Patent & Trademark Databases:
https://www.uspto.gov/

Virginia Canals and Navigations Society:
https://www.vacanals.org/

Wabash & Erie Canal History:
https://wabashanderiecanal.org/wabash-erie-canal-history-delphi-in/

Wealden Iron Research Group, Online Publications:
https://www.wealdeniron.org.uk/publications/

image
Svalbard Miners Tribute, Longyearbyen.


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Last updated: March 6, 2021